Charles Darwin is one of the most well-known scientists of the 19th century and one of the most prominent biologists ever. Originally, he was studying to become a doctor, like his father and grandfather, however, he could not bear the “brutality” of the operations. His father noticed this and signed him in a priest’s college instead. That’s where he met reverent J. S. Henslow, a professor of botany, who took young Charles on his scientific tours.
Shortly after he finished his studies, he participated in a geographic expedition to South America. The expedition took 5 years, and in that time, Darwin managed to collect many samples of plants and animals, that were not yet known by science and gained a reputation of a well-respected biologist. He also based many of his theories around pieces of knowledge he gained on this expedition.
Without a doubt, Darwin’s most famous and well-known theory is the evolution theory. It has been proved to be right, although with some minor changes. The world didn’t accept it easily though, because people didn’t like the idea of being descendants of monkeys and it opposed the public opinion of the 19th century, that all beings were created by God. He also came with the theories of how atolls and humus are created and published in-depth studies about barnacles and carnivorous plants. There’s not enough space to write about his work in detail, but if you are interested, you can always find more information on the internet or better yet, read his works in the original.
Autor: J.Machota, VI. A
Shakespeare was born in 1564 and he died in 1616. He was an English poet, playwright, and actor. He’s known by people like the greatest writer in his language and the greatest dramatist in the world. He lived in England al his life. There are 39 plays, 154 sonnets, 2 long narrative stories and many other short poems that still exist. His plays are translated into every major language and they are performed very often everywhere.
At the beginning of his successful career worked in London as an actor, writer and part-owner of theatre company called „The Lord Chamberlain’s Men“.
A number of his famous plays were written between the years 1589 and 1613. At first, he made primarily comedies and after 1608 he started writing tragedies. For example, Hamlet, King Lear and so on. And in his last phase of life, he wrote tragicomedies. He died on his birthday at age 52.
Autor: N. Šimková, VI.A
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
Winston Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 when he led the UK to victory in the Second World War and again from 1951 to 1955. For most of his career, he was a member of the Conservative party but from 1904 to 1924 he was a member of the Liberal party.
Do you know that:
- his nickname was “the British bulldog”? Churchill got his nickname because of his temperament. His strong character and great speeches made him a good leader of the UK against Nazi Germany.
- he was a soldier not only a politician? His father insisted that he should be prepared for a career in the military, and so he succeeded in his third attempt to gain admittance to the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst. He fought in many battles against the uprising in Cuba, India or even in Sudan. He came out of several battles uninjured, although he did crazy and dangerous things.
- he was an addict? He loved alcohol, especially whiskey. The second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa, where there was a shortage of clean water he drank lots of alcohol even when he was in the trenches. He took there, with his gun and military equipment, 36 bottles of wine, 18 bottles of whiskey and 6 bottles of brandy.
- he was the one, who does not give up? His stubbornness was seen also in a political carrier. He invented lots of compromises between the imperial UK, Soviet Union, which was always saying just [nět] and the US, which was trying to lead Allies.
Churchill never succumbed to the Nazi German offers to end the war even at a time when the Nazi invasion was in danger and its repulsion seemed like an impossible task. In 1941, Hitler’s deputy Rudolf Hess even landed in Britain and brought a detailed peace agreement, which would end the war between them in order to help Nazi Germany focus in the Eastern front. But Churchill didn’t agree with this agreement and defended the UK.
Autor: Adam Václavík, VI.A
Charlie Chaplin was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era. He is mostly famous for his screen persona „the tramp“. Born on April 16, 1889, in London, Chaplin is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. Chaplin suffered from poverty and hardship in his childhood. He was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. His first performances were at music halls as a stage actor and comedian at the age of 19. He went to the USA where he was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. During this time, he started directing his own films and continued to hone his craft.
His most famous movies include City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator or The Kid. He had four wives, the last one he married when he was 44 and she was just 19, still she gave birth to 8 of his children. His later years were, however, full of controversy which were caused in the first place by his romantic liaisons and his anti-capitalistic and anti-war views which caused him to be exiled from the USA. He spent the rest of his life in Switzerland and he only returned to the USA once and that was in 1972 to accept the honorary award of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Overall, Charlie Chaplin had the incalculable effect in making motion pictures the art form of the 20th century and he is regarded as one of, if not the best, film directors and actors.
Autor: Jan Tichý, VI.A
He was born on the 23rd of April in 1775 in London to the family of barber and wig maker. Parents sent him to his uncle to Brentford, because his mother had mental problems. Here he started painting. Most of his paintings depicted the landscape. Turner study at Royal Academy school in London, where he after a few years later became a teacher. He never married despite having two daughters. He died on the 19th of December in London.
At first, his painting was in the style of classicism, then he started painting in the style of romanticism and eventually, he became a model for impressionists. In Turner’s work, the main goal was to capture color and light changes in the atmosphere and painting with the technique of pure color spots, which he used to display emotions. He was fascinated by nature, especially natural elements and phenomena as storm, rain, fog, and sunshine. His most famous paintings are The fighting Temeraire, Venice from the Porch of Madonna Della Salute, Rain, steam and speed and Didi building Carthage.